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Fresh 1.1 - automatic JSX, plugins, DevTools, and more

Fresh is a new full stack web framework for Deno. By default, web pages built with Fresh send zero JavaScript to the client. The framework has no build step which allows for an order of magnitude improvement in development experience and deployment times.

Today we are releasing the next significant version of Fresh. Version 1.1 brings a lot of important improvements that make Fresh easier to use, faster, and generally more useful. Some highlights of this release:

To create a new Fresh project, you can run:

$ deno run -A -r my-app

To update your project to the latest version of Fresh run the update script from the root of your project:

$ deno run -A -r .

In addition to updating Fresh and it’s dependencies, this script can also apply codemods to your codebase to keep it up to date with the latest recommendations for Fresh projects. Also view the Concepts: Updating documentation page.

Automatic JSX

New projects are now set up to use automatic mode JSX by default. This means that you do not need the /** @jsx h */ pragma and import { h } from "preact"; at the top of all of your files anymore. This is a major improvement in developer experience and removes a common source of errors for new users.

- /** @jsx h */
- import { h } from "preact";

  export default function AboutPage() {
    return (
        <p>This is the about page.</p>

Existing projects can be updated to use automatic mode using the codemod in the Fresh update script. Alternatively it can be manually enabled by adding the following lines to the deno.json file in the root of your project:

  "compilerOptions": {
    "jsx": "react-jsx",
    "jsxImportSource": "preact"

After doing this, you must remove all /** @jsx h */ pragmas and import { h } from "preact"; imports from your JSX/TSX files. Automatic and non automatic mode can not be mixed in the same project.


Plugins are a new way to extend Fresh’s functionality without requiring intrusive changes in Fresh itself. Right now plugins can only be used to orchestrate rendering and inject styles and scripts into the rendered HTML. This is useful for styling frameworks like twind. This could also be used to do things like inject a Google Analytics script into the page, or globally load a web component.

Plugins are defined through the plugins property in the options bag passed to the start function in your main.ts file.

This is just the first iteration of plugins. Future versions will add more hooks that plugins can use to extend Fresh’s functionality. Plugins will be able to add new routes, middleware, and islands to a project in the future.

Documentation for plugins is available in the Concepts: Plugins documentation page.

As of now only a single official plugin is available. More plugins will be added in the future as the capabilities of the plugin system expand.

Official twind plugin

Twind is a small Tailwind-in-JS implementation that can generate CSS just-in-time based on the classes used in your JSX. Previous versions of Fresh had a option to automatically configure Twind for you during project initialization, but this resulted in significant amounts of boilerplate.

With the new plugin system, we are now providing a first-party Fresh plugin for Twind. This plugin automatically configures Twind for you to minimize boilerplate in your project. Using it is as simple as:

  // main.ts
  import { start } from "$fresh/server.ts";
  import manifest from "./fresh.gen.ts";

+ import twindPlugin from "$fresh/plugins/twind.ts";
+ import twindConfig from "./twind.config.js";

  await start(manifest, {
+   plugins: [
+     twindPlugin(twindConfig),
+   ],

With this new plugin, using Twind classes in your project becomes even simpler. Previously you had to import the tw function from the twind module and wrap all your class names in it. Now you can just specify the class names directly in the JSX component, and the plugin will take care of the rest.

  // pages/index.tsx
- import { tw } from "@twind";

  export default function IndexPage() {
    return (
-     <h1 class={tw`text-4xl font-bold`}>Hello, world!</h1>
+     <h1 class="text-4xl font-bold">Hello, world!</h1>

With the new plugin, Twind also works more reliably during client side renders and is able to better resolve conflicts between server and client rendered style sheets.

The project initialization script has been updated to use the new Twind plugin, and now also generates all required files to be able to use the Twind VSCode extension.

The update script can be used to update your project to use the new Twind plugin via a codemod.

Preact Signals support

New Fresh projects are now automatically set up to use the new Preact Signals. Signals are a new reactive state management primitive for Preact. They are designed to be much faster than hooks and context, while simultaneously being much more ergonomic.

Here is an example of the basic “counter” component using signals instead of hooks.

import { useSignal } from "@preact/signals";
import { Button } from "../components/Button.tsx";

interface CounterProps {
  start: number;

export default function Counter(props: CounterProps) {
  const count = useSignal(props.start);
  return (
      <button onClick={() => count.value--}>-1</button>
      <button onClick={() => count.value++}>+1</button>

Signals also provide an excellent way to manage shared state across multiple islands in your Fresh project. Check out the Fresh with Signals demo to see how this works.

For existing projects the updater script will automatically add the @preact/signals dependency to your import map. You can also manually add the dependency to your import map - just make sure to also update preact-render-to-string to >=5.2.3.

Preact DevTools support

You can now use the Preact DevTools extension available for Chrome, Firefox, and Edge to inspect the component tree of your Fresh project.

This is a great way to debug issues with your islands and understand how Preact is rendering your components.

To make use of this feature no additional configuration is required. Just update to the latest version of Fresh and install the Preact DevTools extension for your browser.

This feature is only available during development. In production the Preact DevTools integration is not available. This is done to reduce the amount of JavaScript that is shipped to clients.

Thank you to Marvin Hagemeister for contributing this feature, and improving the Preact DevTools support for island based hydration.

Explicit rendering of 404 pages

It is now possible to explicitly render the 404 page from a route handler. This can be useful if you want to render the 404 page depending on the result of a database query, or if you do more complex routing in your route handler.

To render a 404 page, just call ctx.renderNotFound() from your route handler instead of calling ctx.render() or returning a custom Response object. Just like with ctx.render() you can modify the returned Response object before it is sent to the client.

// routes/index.ts

export const handler: Handlers = {
  GET(req, ctx) {
    const url = new URL(req.url);
    const id = url.searchParams.get("id");
    if (!id) return ctx.renderNotFound(); // return a 404 page if no id is provided
    return ctx.render({ id });

// ... page component here ...

Thank you to Steven Yung for contributing this feature.

Stacked middleware

It is now possible to have multiple middleware functions for a single middleware route. This is useful if you have multiple different middleware functions that should all be applied for a given matcher. This is achieved by exporting an array from the middleware file instead of a single function.

Here is an example of a middleware module that contains two middleware functions: one to do logging and one to add timing headers to the response.

// routes/_middleware.ts

export const handler = [

async function timing(
  _req: Request,
  ctx: MiddlewareHandlerContext,
): Promise<Response> {
  const start =;
  const res = await;
  const end =;
  const dur = (end - start).toFixed(1);
  res.headers.set("Server-Timing", `handler;dur=${dur}`);
  return res;

async function logging(
  req: Request,
  ctx: MiddlewareHandlerContext,
): Promise<Response> {
  const res = await;
  console.log(`${req.method} ${req.url} ${res.status}`);
  return res;

Thank you to @ahuigo for contributing this feature.

Experimental Deno.serve support

Deno v1.25 added a new very high performance HTTP server to Deno. You can read more about it in the Deno 1.25 release notes. It is only available in Deno v1.25 and later when running with the --unstable flag.

This version of Fresh adds experimental support for using the new Deno.serve API instead of the existing std/http server. Deno.serve is not yet stable, so you should not use it in production. Deno.serve is also not available on Deno Deploy, because it is still experimental.

To enable the new server you must specify experimentalDenoServe: true in the options bag passed to the start() method in your main.ts file.

Showcase & “Made with Fresh” badges

The Fresh homepage now has a showcase section where you can find a list of projects that are using Fresh. If you have a project using Fresh, please add it to the list!

In addition to the showcase, we are now also providing a “Made with Fresh” badge that you can add to your website or project README. The badge is also available in a dark variant.

Made with Fresh

Made with Fresh(dark)

Follow these instructions to add the badge to your project: